Indian Poultry Scenario
Poultry feed is food for farm poultry, including, chickens, ducks, geese and other domestic birds. Feed for poultry mostly consist of rains. The quantity and nutritional requirement of the feed depend on the weight and the age of the poultry as well as the season. Healthy poultry requires a sufficient amount of protein and carbohydrates, along with the necessary vitamins, dietary minerals, and an adequate supply of water.
The poultry sector encompasses a range of farming system from highly industrialized and export oriented at one end to the backyard, small, and marginal model addressing livelihood issues at the other end.
Poultry Feeding System in India
Poultry Feed in India consists of grains like maize, wheat, sorghum, bajra, ragi and broken rice; grain by products like rice polish, deoiled rice bran and maize gluten meal; oilseed meals from soybeans, mustard, groundnut and sunflower; animal protein sources like fish meal, whole fish, meat and bone meal, poultry by-product meal; vitamins, minerals and various feed additives. In broilers, three types of feeds – pre-starter, starter and finisher are used. In layers, chick mash, grower mash and two-three types of layer mash are used. In case of broilers in India, an estimated 9-10 million MTof feed was produced in 2013 of which almost 80 percent was produced in pellet form and balance 20 percent in mash form. The distribution system in case of commercial broiler and layer feed is through dealers and distributors to small and medium farmers. In case of few states in south, feed millers are supplying directly to large farmers. In case of large poultry integrators, they manufacture their own feeds. Some of the integrators purchase premixes, specialty feeds and concentrates.
Poultry Feed India is fourth largest broiler producer and third largest egg producer. The poultry sector is the key driver with the broiler production of 3.5 million tonnes in 2013 and egg production of 70.24 billion in 2012-13. 90 percent of the broiler industry uses compound feed. Poultry consumption has seen a steady growth over the last few years. The key factor for this is growth in household incomes. Growth in income is associated with an increase in animal-based proteinintake. Being a white meat, broiler meat has the advantage of being a healthier choice vis-a-vis red meats like mutton, pork and beef, while also being cheaper than seafood. Per capita consumption of broiler meat grew by 7.4 per cent CAGR from 2009-10 to 2013-14, while that of eggs rose by 3.7 per cent CAGR. These levels are, however, much lower than the National Institute of Nutrition’s per capita consumption recommendation of 11 kg of meat and 180 eggs per year. Over 2013-14 to 2017-18, per capita consumption of broiler meat is estimated to continue to grow by a slower 6 per cent CAGR, while eggs will improve slightly to 3.9 per cent CAGR. The use of the compound feed in the layer industry varies from 5 to 25 percent and is highly underpenetrated. Based on the current egg production total feed demand is about 11.6 million tonnes although the consumption is 2-3 million tonnes. In future, the layer industry offers a promising potential for the growth of the feed industry. Poultry Feed accounts for 58 percent of the total feed market in India. Poultry feed consumption has increased from 7 percent in 2007-08 to 8 percent in 2012-13. The current demand for poultry feed in India is almost 22 million tons. The broiler industry has been considered the strongest driver behind the development of feed industry in India, benefiting largely from the presence of integrators (70% of the total industry) and a shorter production cycle. This has brought in feed based efficiencies and rationalization in the industry. While poultry integrators are much stronger in regional pockets of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, the much larger landscape for the poultry industry and its expansion beyond these belts provide ample opportunity for standalone feed players. The demand is expected to grow by 7-8 percent in near term.
INDIAN FEED INDUSTRY
Feed manufacturing on a commercial and scientific basis
started around 1965 with the setting up of medium-sized feed plants in the
northern and western India. Feed was produced mainly to cater to the needs of
dairy cattle. The poultry sector was not developed at that time and was
restricted to backyard production in about 29.43 million tones, which
represents only 3 percent of the total global.
Compared with the rest of the livestock sector, the poultry industry in India is more scientific, better organized and continuously progressing towards modernization. Breeding and feeding management has improved through education, training, competition, expansion and survival instincts. India is the world ′s fifth largest egg producer, with a total production of 40 billion eggs per year. The broiler industry is growing at the rate of percent per annum.
India has 150 millions layers and 650 millions broilers. Annual per capita consumption of eggs is 40, and that of broiler meat is 1000 g. Although these figures are low in comparison with those for developed countries, the industry has great potential to extend because 30 percent of the country′s population (about 300 million people) is developing economically and the demand for poultry is therefore likely to grow.
The Poultry industry has witnessed several ups and downs in the last 25 years as a result of unplanned growth and a lack of government regulation. Currently, it is growing at the rate of 10 percent in broilers and 6 to 7 percent in layers and is going through a phase of integration in broilers which is likely to change the face of industry. Although the phenomena is new, it is expected that there will be very rapid change towards integration as more farmer find the increasingly difficult to run farms with marginal profits or negative margins. The Poultry industry is very modern, with pure-line breeding, the latest vacancies and medicines, environmentally practices, chicken processing, exports of hatching eggs and excellent feed quality.
Industry can be said to be in strong positions by following facts and figures:
(1) Indian is the fifth largest producer of eggs in the world.
(2) Eggs production is growing by 4-6% every year whereas broiler production is growing by 8-10%.
(3) It is being estimated that industry can possibly bring in Rs. 2000 million in foreign exchange in the next five year from exports. Poultry has a great role to play in employing large number of people. Even a unit increases in per capita consumption of eggs, creates new job in good volume.